Multicultural: What is Commonly Taught and Thought


the expanding DSM

Homo/transphobia is an international issue. Change toward greater acceptance is seen as a landmark shift toward human rights, but remains a hot topic. Queer/trans/intersex people are traditionally used as scapegoats in Western culture, and those impacted by colonization directly or indirectly, to release social pressure. Homosexuality is currently illegal in over 75 countries. Change is slow, but steady. This number is down from 92 countries in 2006. (you can go here for a full list and to learn more)

Another marker is the classification of homosexuality and transgender experience as a mental illness across the globe.


“First published in 1968, DSM-II (the American classification of mental disorders) listed homosexuality as a mental disorder. In this, the DSM followed in a long tradition in medicine and psychiatry, which in the 19th century appropriated homosexuality from the Church and, in an élan of enlightenment, transformed it from sin to mental disorder.
In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) asked all members attending its convention to vote on whether they believed homosexuality to be a mental disorder. 5,854 psychiatrists voted to remove homosexuality from the DSM, and 3,810 to retain it.
The APA then compromised, removing homosexuality from the DSM but replacing it, in effect, with “sexual orientation disturbance” for people “in conflict with” their sexual orientation. Not until 1987 did homosexuality completely fall out of the DSM.
Meanwhile, the World Health Organization (WHO) only removed homosexuality from its ICD classification with the publication of ICD-10 in 1992, although ICD-10 still carries the construct of “ego-dystonic sexual orientation”. In this condition, the person is not in doubt about his or her sexual preference, but “wishes it were different because of associated psychological and behavioural disorders”.
The evolution of the status of homosexuality in the classifications of mental disorders highlights that concepts of mental disorder can be rapidly evolving social constructs that change as society changes. Today, the standard of psychotherapy in the U.S. and Europe is gay affirmative psychotherapy, which encourages gay people to accept their sexual orientation.”

-excerpt from, When Homosexuality Stopped Being a Mental Disorder

TRANSGENDER EXPERIENCE: The APA currently talks about ‘Gender Dysphoria’ in relation to transgender experience. You can learn more about how they frame it here. As of 2017 in Denmark, it’s no longer a diagnosis.

Buzz Feed News published an overview in 2016 of a survey covering 23 countries across the world. There was a faint trend toward supporting transgender people. In Brazil 50% of the people surveyed said that they knew a transgender person, in Russia it was 16%. Spain and Argentina consistently showed more overall support in comparison to the other countries.


The spread of Western culture across the globe has fundamentally modified thought and practice in most indigenous cultures it has colonized. Gender and sexuality oppression seem to specifically appear in relation to Euro Western countries exploiting and colonizing indigenous, usually nature based cultures across the globe. This has a lasting impact and is firmed through a long standing international focus on Western culture and its academia, including Darwin. I’m reminded of what Trumbach said, “The paradigm that there are two genders founded on two biological sexes began to predominate in western culture only in the early eighteenth century.” Darwin’s influence cannot to be diminished, despite the fact that many of his theories remain unproven.


Many indigenous cultures retain positive traditions of homo/trans identity acceptance despite deeply rooted homo/transphobia introduced by and perpetuated through violent contact with Western culture.

On LGBTQI2S+ Community:

Oppression of our community can often feel explosive and violent as well as less significant in relation to other communities, even marginalized ones. It is connected to multiple layers of silence and suppression, misinformation and aggressive lies used to oppress the people at large by separating them from their core beliefs and truths. This is usually rooted in a past of violent colonization of indigenous people, usually most violent against queer/trans/intersex people of the community.

image from the children’s book, The Boy and the Bindi, read the HuffPost article